Typical microprocessor GPIOs look like this:
the first thing to go in an over voltage situation is usually the protection diodes, which have a power and\or current rating (or a general GPIO current rating) that you can find in the datasheet. If the protection diodes go out then its a guess to figure out what goes next as this is dependent on the IC. But a good design should prevent the diodes shouldn't be burned up.
10V to 3.3V through a 10 ohm resistor is still 670 mA which is enough to burn out any microprocessor.
You'll need a little more than 10Ω, try 10kΩ then you would get 6.7mA which would probably be acceptable in most applications.
Another thing would be to put another pair external diodes to protect the inputs in conjunction with the resistor to make sure they don't get overloaded.
If a higher resistance value won't cut it because of speed issues, then you may want to go with an buffer that can tolerate a wider input range.