Peltier question power, pwm and voltage

There are little to none information about Peltier in the internet, especially in team of powering it, so here I try to ask few question about it.

Here is the particular one that I am referring to:

12706
Internal Resistance 2.1-2.4 ohm
Imax 4-4.6
v 12v  Vmax 15.2v
QCmax 50-60W


Q1, Clearly, I should power it using 12v-15.2v power supply, but what about powering it with a higher voltage? Being dumb and all, I did powered it with a 19v DC and it works fine, so what is that Vmax all about?

Q2, What is the closest electronic component can a Peltier device model to? If I know that, then I know how to properly power it, but to me, it's like an unknown dark box.

Q3, PWM or NOT PWM? and why? Some people have claimed that it's not efficient to power it using PWM, but I think they are confused PWM with AC. Powering it using AC is like changing the Heat side to cold side many times in a second, which will only produce heat in the process.

Q4, A LED is a current device. what about this? Is it current driven or voltage driven? How to calculate the current? My test: powering it with 19v, got 5.1A and 12.8v got 3.5A;

Q5, It's not a resistor, nor a diode, maybe both? When measuring it with a meter, I got 12ohm with reverse; and 0 ohm with red to red and black to black.

• Cant answer all your question but Q1 - the manufacture does not take responsibility for using the component above its recommended settings. You may find this one works but the next one does not. Its takes for variation in parts and tolerance and presumably some safety for the manufacturer. Also if the manufacture has no added value for quoting performance to 19V why should they. – R.Joshi Jun 26 '18 at 9:44
• @R.Joshi My real Question for Q1 is more like, why NOT higher voltage? Is there a science to that "recommended" voltage rating? For example, for a 12v led, there is Clearly a reason and science behind that voltage setting. – Atmega 328 Jun 26 '18 at 9:59
• @Atmega328 You could probably power a 12v bulb on 19v for a while, but its life will likely be severely shortened. – HandyHowie Jun 26 '18 at 10:22
• @HandyHowie For that poor bulb, she is just too hot, but why my cool guy would have a short life too when I try my best to cool him down? – Atmega 328 Jun 26 '18 at 11:55
• – MarkU Jun 27 '18 at 7:16