At work I was told to look for a USB 3.0 transceiver that interfaces to ULPI. I'm not able to find transceivers which fit this description. Is there some other "lingo", or feature I should be looking for?
ULPI specifications are limited to USB 2.0 data rates only, 480 Mbps maximum. There is no USB 3.x PHYs that can possibly use ULPI for susper-speed rates. The high-bandwidth (5000 Mbps and 10000 MBbps) link that is used in USB Super-Speed PHYs is called "PIPE3" interface.
However, since the USB 3.x provides backward compatibility simply by running the new super-speed hardware in parallel with legacy USB2 hardware, a USB 3.x PHY must support both channels, Super-Speed, and the legacy USB2.0 signaling, and therefore must use BOTH interfaces, PIPE3 and ULPI, see this Texas Instruments block diagram,
AFAIK, all designs I saw (Cadence, Synopsis, SiBridge, etc.), all are using separate channel (UTMI+ or ULPI) for legacy USB 2.0 support.