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I got tlp test data and found that the current at vertical line means leakage current.

But I don't understand the method how does the tlp-test measure the leakage current.

I tried to search the method, but I failed.

enter image description here

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The wavy VI curve is leakage but when Vmax is exceeded with sufficient time (ns) , then abrupt avalanche failure occurs followed by a short circuit with the max current dropping down vertically to 0V

These were tested with a fancy tester. https://assets.thermofisher.com/TFS-Assets/CAD/Specification-Sheets/Celestron-Spec-Sheet-0215.pdf

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In a simple google search for {esd tlp leakage current} the third hit "What is TLP? - Barth Electronics" gives sufficient explanation on how the TLP - Transmission Line Pulse testing - is done. In part, the appnote says:

TLP testing is done by applying the rectangular test pulse to the two pins of the Device Under Test (DUT) to be tested. The most common method of introducing the pulse to the DUT has been to split the pulse between a grounded 56-ohm resistor and a 500 to 1500 ohm resistor in series with the DUT pin to be tested. The common pin is connected to the ground lead to provide a return path for the pulse current.

See also this EDN article, TLP-testing-gains-momentum, which explains how TLP differs from more common ESD testing.

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