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I have a 5V 2A DC power supply I plan to power a custom arduino with. However, I'm also using a NRF24l01+, which requires 3.3V. So, I'm in the market for a 3.3V regulator, but I'm unsure of which one to buy. Some have output current of 500mA, and some I've seen that cost more have output of 3A. Does it matter which one I buy?

I'm partially worried about frying the NRF24l01+. But I don't have enough of an understanding of voltage versus current and what can connect together. I'm more of a plug-and-play kind of person.

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Higher current output capacity of your transformer or voltage regulator doesn't mean that the actual current will be exactly the same.

The important concept for a non-electrical engineer like you is that the amount of Current drawn doesn't depend on the output capacity of the source (although it can limit the current ), it depends on the load and in this case your nrf24L01+.

So don't worry buy any regulator that fulfils the minimum current limit you require (I guess which for a single nrf is 12mA at full power without PA LNA module ) and don't worry about the maximum current rating of the regulator . The rating signifies the max current it can provide not that it will necessarily, which entirely depends on your nrf.

To save the extra component hassle you may very well power your nrfs using the 3.3v output of your arduino itself as it can provide a max of 150 mA of current.

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Find out how much current your NRF24I01+ needs and get a regulator that can provide at least that much current. Also, get a low dropout regulator that can operate with a 5V input and provide the 3.3V output. After having chosen a regulator, determine how much power it will dissipate and provide adequate heat sinking.

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If you look at the NRF24l01+ data sheet the current consumption is in the ten's of mA, so a power supply capable of 500 mA is more than enough.

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