I want to supply electrical current to a motor-powered rotating shaft. The current supplied is of the order of 400-600 amperes (AC or DC). In what ways can it be done? Shaft speed is around 1400 RPM. The voltage applied is 220 volt for AC. For DC, the voltage will be lower. I am on the conceptual stage, so I may be missing on few details. I have a hybrid power source that can supply DC as well as AC as output. So I require this setup so as to work on both as the need arises.
The obvious approach is to either use a slip ring
or a roll ring.
1000A at 1400 RPM is possible for either approach (do your own thorough search for commercial suppliers, the links are merely intended to be informative).
The slip ring uses brushes, the roll ring uses spring rollers.
There are other methods possible, but not so applicable for DC. There will be significant electrical noise generated by the moving contacts so if you have sensitive instrumentation nearby it can be affected. The roll ring will likely be quieter electrically. Roll rings are used in the ISS to transmit solar power across a rotating joint.
The way to supply current to a rotating object is with a device called a slip ring. Essentially this is just a brush. You can get slip ring assemblies with many channels, though I suppose if you want the current on the shaft itself, you would need one one-channel slip ring at each end.
You can also generate the current on the shaft itself by putting a set of generator rotor coils there.
This is done in alternators to get the field current for the rotor, while also allowing a small regulator current. To get DC, the rectifier is on the shaft rotating. Not usually high currents then.