USB cables may have different construction (shielded and non-shielded), and may have different materials for wire jacket making the signal to attenuate differently at different data speeds.
For example, many initial USB 1.1 cables used for LS(1.5 Mbps) transmission rate were unshielded.
More recent USB cables are using shielded cable assemblies, and marked as "FS/HS cables".
To make a cable designated as "HS", (480 Mbps rate), the cable must meet certain quality requirements such as be reasonably uniform at 90 Ohm differential impedance along the entire cable, and have decent soldering fan-out inside cable's overmold, where the cable is soldered to connector contact. Not all cables are made equal, and if the cable doesn't pass several certification tests (like valid eye diagram at far end of the cable), it can't be called "HS" cable.
Some cables can have differential impedance outside the 90+-20 Ohm window, and will likely fail with USB HS devices/hubs. So a manufacturer of such cable wouldn't risk to put "HS" label on their production. The difference between "HS" and non-HS cable is not in frequency they can pass through, but would it work in HS mode without errors or not.
In no case you should trust the manufacturer designation unless the cable has USB-IF certification logo, in this case just like this one,
A good cable manufacturer would also provide USB-IF Test ID for the cable. In all other cases it is a gamble with signal fidelity and potential intermittent failure in communication.