Led driver (e.g. TLC59116 for 16 x 120 mA channels, IS31FL3236 for 36 x 38 mA channels) + 4-conductor cable is all you need.
Ironically, if your combined LED current is under 1A then good ol' USB 2.0 cable can work for you. Just don't use high speed clock, twisted pair has a lot of crosstalk.
For higher current simply use any suitable cable and just about any of thousands available connectors, like DIN for example.
The latency issue is because I might want to cycle each LED independently on/off at 1kHz (e.g. LED #1 on for 5ms, off, repeat at 1kHz)
As it happens, you misunderstand how these chips work. You don't need to generate PWM by yourself, you simply send commands that set individual LED brightness, and the chip generates PWM for you (at 97 kHz, or about 100 times faster than you were planning).
The whole point of this answer is that you don't have to control LEDs yourself, you use digital communication over few wires and tell the chip what to do. At 100 kHz clock speed you can change the brightness of all 15 LEDs about 700 times per second, or about 20 times faster than human can perceive.
I have a Osram specs that indicate 3.1V forward voltage and a range (?) of 100-1000mA
Don't you think this info belongs to the question? And how were you going to use Type C cable (as in the title) if most of the wires in it are AWG34, with maximum rated current only 180 mA? Do you realize that with 1A per LED your ground wire will carry over 15A!
Anyway, in this case you still have multiple options available.
- You can use driver with open drain output, like 18 channel LV5235V and control external switch while limiting maximum current with a resistor (as I suggested in the comment to your question from the beginning).
- Or you can control constant-current driver with PWM input and suitable rating, like CAT4101. This should be more efficient than using resistors.
- You can also use automotive shunt-type dimming chip, like TPS92661 with external buck regulator e.g. TPS92515x. This option is probably most power efficient, although it requires separate wire with about 40V to power 12 LEDs in series (or 2 wires for your 15 LEDs). The cool thing about this setup is that it trades high current for high voltage, so you can use much thinner wires.
The bottom line is: send control signal and provide power to your LED system, do the actual PWM switching by small circuit in the system itself.
BTW, with only 4-5 wires you probably don't even need "small and neat" connector on LED side, you can solder that end of the cable directly to PCB.