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Basically, in a alternating current the electrons moves back and forth really fast. From one atome to another?

I'm wondering how the current can travel from a central to my home. I mean, for a cycle is the current can travel the whole distance then go back to the central?

There is probably a maximum distance that the AC can travel?

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There is no maximum distance AC current can travel, it is a wave. Waves need waveguides or transmission lines to propagate with little loss. The caveat is that for it to travel infinite distance, you'd also need your transmission media to be superconducting and lossless.

In lossy lines the story is different, and is determined by the wavelength of the lines. After 1/4 wavelength the effects become significant.

If a “long” line is considered to be one at least 1/4 wavelength in length, you can see why all connecting lines in the circuits discussed thusfar have been assumed “short.” For a 60 Hz AC power system, power lines would have to exceed 775 miles in length before the effects of propagation time became significant. Cables connecting an audio amplifier to speakers would have to be over 4.65 miles in length before line reflections would significantly impact a 10 kHz audio signal!

Source: https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/alternating-current/chpt-14/long-and-short-transmission-lines/

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