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I connected ends of wire to ac hot and neutral points of ac outlet sockets - an electric fuse broke and power went off in my house. I understand this happened since there was closed circuit connection. But with any electrical devices like mixer this will not happen. What is there in those devices that will prevent this from happening?

This will not happen when I connect 2 ends of wire to + and - terminal of DC Battery.

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    \$\begingroup\$ obviusly your mains fuse will not break if you short circuit a battery... \$\endgroup\$ – PlasmaHH Aug 21 '18 at 7:44
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    \$\begingroup\$ for your own and others' safety, please DONT do such experiments if you are not 100% sure of what you are doing - and obviously you are not. \$\endgroup\$ – thece Aug 21 '18 at 8:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ Why the down votes, it was dangerous yes but it was still a specific question with a specific answer...? \$\endgroup\$ – Tim Mottram Aug 22 '18 at 8:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ @TimMottram Probably because this site expects at least some knowledge of the subject matter; it isn't for spoon feeding basic theory, especially about things easily searched with any search engine in existence. \$\endgroup\$ – R Drast Aug 22 '18 at 14:08
  • \$\begingroup\$ @RDrast google didn't answered me for this question \$\endgroup\$ – harsha kumar Reddy Aug 23 '18 at 8:51
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A Mixer has much higher impedance than a piece of wire - limiting the current which can flow and thus not melting the wire or tripping the breaker.

Your battery can't supply enough current to melt the fuse wire. The mains can.

I would suggest you stop experimenting with the mains before you hurt yourself/start a fire.

EDIT:

Whilst a battery might not be able to supply sufficient current to melt wire (a car battery might... please don't test it) a LiPo battery wont like being shorted and could well explode. It's pretty much never a good idea to short circuit things...

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    \$\begingroup\$ The resistance of a motor I just had lying around is ~1.5Ω, while this is surely more than a piece of wire, this is not enough to limit the current on a 230V to non-fuse tripping levels. \$\endgroup\$ – PlasmaHH Aug 21 '18 at 7:43
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    \$\begingroup\$ Correction - "Mixer/Motor/any device" has high enough "impedance" to limit the current and not burn the fuse. An ideal inductor of sufficient size would limit mains current and yet would have zero resistance. A motor is a nearly ideal inductor. \$\endgroup\$ – Tom Carpenter Aug 21 '18 at 8:10
  • \$\begingroup\$ @TomCarpenter thanks for your reply you should have posted this as answer \$\endgroup\$ – harsha kumar Reddy Aug 21 '18 at 9:06
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    \$\begingroup\$ Ha, OK, changed to impedance. OP said "any electrical devices" - By mixer he could have meant DJ mixer which would not have had much inductance at all. I didn't really think this was a discussion about complex impedance, more about current (and safety). \$\endgroup\$ – Tim Mottram Aug 21 '18 at 10:27
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    \$\begingroup\$ Also, an inductor connected to a large battery would most definitely burn a fuse wire. It's only because the mains is AC that prevents the current from getting large enough to trip the breaker. \$\endgroup\$ – Tim Mottram Aug 21 '18 at 10:42

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