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I found this piece of circuit in a battery powered sensor. It's a magnetic door sensor.

ckt

I am not able to figure out what does this do?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Is that from an existing schematic, or did you reverse engineer it yourself? In the latter case, can you double check, those two 3V nodes don't make much sense to me \$\endgroup\$ – PlasmaHH Aug 27 '18 at 10:54
  • \$\begingroup\$ It's an existing circuit. \$\endgroup\$ – Whiskeyjack Aug 27 '18 at 10:54
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It's battery reverse polarity protection like this circuit: -

enter image description here

When the battery is connected correctly, the PMOSFET turns on and acts like a low ohmic path for current to the load. If the battery is reversed, the gate is higher than the source in voltage and the PMOSFET does not turn on thus, it "protects" the load.

The gate resistor is optional and is not needed for batteries of lower voltage than typically 10 to 15 volts but if the battery were 15 volts or more, the resistor AND an added zener diode would protect the gate-source region getting too much voltage and breaking down: -

enter image description here

It's probably a good idea to have a resistor anyway because it does offer some ESD protection to the gate (that would otherwise be directly connected to a battery terminal and could be vulnerable).

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Are the source and drain reversed in your second schematic? \$\endgroup\$ – Shamtam Aug 27 '18 at 12:21
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Shamtam - it's the first diagram that is wrong! - I shall fix shortly. \$\endgroup\$ – Andy aka Aug 27 '18 at 12:26
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Is there more to the circuit, what does the 3V power?

It is difficult to answer the question without knowing what else is there, however, here is a shot:

The MOSFET is used to ensure 3V power to the 3V node even in the case of mis-connection of the battery. Under normal connection, the body diode of the MOSFET powers up the 3V node, assuming that NC on R14 means that it is not connected (or not mounted). In case the battery is inserted incorrectly (basically, inverted), the GND in the circuit becomes 3V, the MOSFET switches on and connects the negative of the battery to the 3V node. This way, the circuit still works, without blowing stuff. The capacitors seem ceramic/non-polarized and should work with reverse polarity. The LC filter would be useless though...

Again, shot in the dark, without the remaining part of the circuit, I cannot validate my hypothesis.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ There is a microcontroller and an accelerometer in the schematic powered using the 3V node. \$\endgroup\$ – Whiskeyjack Aug 27 '18 at 11:20
  • \$\begingroup\$ Is there a diode bridge which would enable power supply inversion? \$\endgroup\$ – Raman Chopra Aug 27 '18 at 11:26
  • \$\begingroup\$ No Raman, There is nothing like that. \$\endgroup\$ – Whiskeyjack Aug 27 '18 at 11:33

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