Those pictures appear to show physically what's there. However, they miss other circuit elements that are important.
The second picture appears to show two separated objects, one carrying positive charge, one negative. For instance, one is the cat you've just stroked, the other is you. If they are conductive, and if you connect them with a wire, a current will flow briefly between them. Many times I've drawn a small spark (much to the cat's discomfort) off its nose, after stroking its fur, which has charged it with respect to me by the tribolectric effect.
What your picture doesn't show is the capacitance between the two bodies, which for cats and people is in the order of a few pFs to a few 10s of pFs. That completes the circuit. Given that typical charging voltages can be thousands, even tens of thousands of volts. That's a significant amount of charge, noticeable to fingers and cats.
Your third picture shows two batteries. What it doesn't show is the capacitance between all the electrodes which completes the circuit. When you make the connection between the batteries, this capacitance will charge up, and a tiny current will flow for a moment. However, as the voltages involved are just a few volts, the amount of charge that moves is so insignificant that you won't notice any effect.