I want to have a higher current output than most op amps (2A) and found the schematic below. But I want to control the output voltage. Could I use a divider circuit with two resistors in the feedback loop to do that?
You are controlling the voltage. You're controlling it to be the same as the input voltage over the range of about +/-4.3V.
If you want the full +/-5V range, you'll have to run the op amp from slightly higher rails due to the B-E drop.
If you want the output lower than the input, put a voltage divider to ground between the input signal and the positive input of the op amp.
If you want the output higher than the input, put a voltage divider to ground between the output and the negative input of the op amp.
If none of these guesses correspond to what you want, you'll have to clarify further.