A basic current mirror is shown below:

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The load and reference current relationship is affected by channel length modulation: enter image description here

In order to cancel the effects of channel length modulation, vds1 and vds2 need to be equal. A cascode current mirror is needed to make this happen, but how? The book I'm using is by Razavi.. enter image description here

Vn = Vgs3 + Vds2

Then, in order to make Vds1=Vds2, vn must satisfy:

Vn = Vgs3 + Vds1 or Vn = Vgs3 + Vgs1

But from the circuit:

Vn=Vgs0 + Vgs1 !!!

How are Vgs0 and Vgs3 equal?


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