What are each of those components on the chip?

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    \$\begingroup\$ The central ones are capacitors. The ones all over the place are probably capacitor or resistor networks. Just some passives for the processor. \$\endgroup\$ – Hearth Oct 28 '18 at 1:03
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    \$\begingroup\$ It's also worth noting that technically none of these are part of the chip, a term which usually refers specifically to the silicon die and not any supporting components. This is, if I remember the terminology right, a hybrid module, containing at least one semiconductor die and an assortment of passive devices on a tiny circuit board. \$\endgroup\$ – Hearth Oct 28 '18 at 1:10
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Felthry Is that what you tell the computer store assistant? \$\endgroup\$ – zenarthra Oct 28 '18 at 1:21
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    \$\begingroup\$ What do you mean by that? \$\endgroup\$ – Hearth Oct 28 '18 at 1:26

The largest objects are capacitors of 10nF to 100nF and are across the main power feed to the IC. The small objects with 4 pads per side are 20 to 22 ohm damping resistors, 4 per package, used to prevent overshoots, ringing and ground bounce from the high peak drive currents used. Without them the data rate would have to be ten times slower to avoid corruption of data.

The small bluish objects are likely resistors of a higher wattage to damp noise from the main power feeds to this IC. They work with the capacitors to create RC based noise filters. Per comments below by Ale..chenski some may also be bias/timing resistors to insure crucial initializing software starts up first, and under voltage detection.

I cannot see every object in detail, so I might have missed a couple.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ The bluish could be bias resistors that control impedance of drivers for some critical interface, like to PCH, which needs to operate before any BIOS can run and possibly tune the impedance. \$\endgroup\$ – Ale..chenski Oct 28 '18 at 1:19

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