I just have a quick question. In my lecture notes, he defined the PID controller as enter image description here

And then he said that this is equal to the following enter image description here

How did he do that? What is k, z1 and z2 equal?

  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ I hate to say it, but simple algebra and perhaps the quadratic formula is all that's needed. Are you unable to see how to work it out? \$\endgroup\$
    – jonk
    Nov 4, 2018 at 21:57
  • \$\begingroup\$ @jonk Yes. Not sure why I just keep following the same wrong steps and end up nowhere. \$\endgroup\$ Nov 4, 2018 at 22:32

1 Answer 1



$$\begin{align*} k_p + \frac{k_i}{s}+k_d\:s&=\frac{k\left(s+z_1\right)\left(s+z_2\right)}{s}\\\\ k_d\:s^2+k_p\:s + k_i&=k\:s^2 + k\left(z_1+z_2\right)s + k\:z_1\:z_2\\\\\therefore\\\\k&=k_d\\\\ k\left(z_1+z_2\right)&=k_p\\\\ k\:z_1\:z_2&=k_i \end{align*}$$

If you accept that \$k=k_d\$ solves for \$k\$, then that's two remaining equations and two remaining unknowns:

$$\begin{align*} z_1+z_2&=\frac{k_p}{k_d}\\\\ z_1\cdot z_2&=\frac{k_i}{k_d} \end{align*}$$

Can you move forward from here using the quadratic equation?

  • \$\begingroup\$ This is a fun answer, one that shows the questioner that simple math and simple deduction skills goes a long way. \$\endgroup\$ Nov 4, 2018 at 23:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ Wow. I'm stupid. I've got it now. Thanks a lot and sorry for the time-wasting question. \$\endgroup\$ Nov 4, 2018 at 23:22
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @AlfroJang80 All of us go through these kinds of things. You aren't stupid. Just needed a push in the right direction. I'm sure you'll remember the idea now. \$\endgroup\$
    – jonk
    Nov 4, 2018 at 23:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ Just as a note; it's possible to choose a combination of \$k_p\$, \$k_i\$, and \$k_d\$ that give you unstable or complex zeros. That's usually a clue from the Universe to you that you're about to learn some practical issues of control theory involving buzzes, thumps, or smoke. But sometimes it's actually the right thing to do. \$\endgroup\$
    – TimWescott
    Nov 5, 2018 at 1:08

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