When I rework 0402 capacitors, then often stick to the tip of the soldering iron. My iron is set at 350. I then discard the cap because I am worried the sustained temp for a few seconds has destroyed the cap. But has the cap actually been destroyed, or possibly damaged? I see the temp rating is much lower than 350.
I can't give you a scientific answer, but I have had capacitors and resistors stuck to my tip and I always use them as if nothing happened. I never had an issue to date.
Also, you are probably looking at the temperature rating which only concern the specifications. That is, it will only really be, let's say 1nF, if it is at those temperatures, but higher temperatures won't necessary damage it. Try looking at the reflow profile specified in the datasheet, or the absolute maximum ratings. I think it only matters if the temperature changes too fast; I don't think that high temperatures in it self do much harm.