Which electric safety measures are required to introduce LED bulbs on the European market?

Which electric measures prevent that the plastic LED bulbs will melt down or ignite at the end of life?

I am especially interested in the measures to prevent dangerous failures. There is a high chance that one part in of the circuit will overheat until it opens the circuit at the end of life. However I saw no thermal fuses in LED bulbs. Please add references, where the requirements are defined.

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    \$\begingroup\$ what's end of life for an LED lamp? it should work pretty much indefinitely unless badly designed? I am not sure that there are any special requirements compared to other apparatus - it's directly connected to mains, so double insulated, and as there is a switcher in there you would have to pass all the EMI/RFI stuff. Obviously a common failure mode that caused things to melt down would be bad news but the plastic probably has to be flame retardent like other electronic/electrical enclosures. \$\endgroup\$ – dmb Jan 6 at 20:20
  • \$\begingroup\$ @dmb do you have a source telling, that the housing needs to be flame retardent? Where does it say that the bulb needs to be double isolated? With end of life I mean some day it will stop working. For example because the electrolyte capacitor aged. \$\endgroup\$ – Jonas Stein Jan 6 at 23:53
  • \$\begingroup\$ Double insulated means the device has two layers of insulation protecting the user from line voltage. I'm not familiar with european codes, but you are likely looking for your own equivalents of the CEC, parts 1 and 3 for parts of your project. If you don't mind a parallel approach while you wait for the right engineer who knows these particular references offhand to show up, you could attempt to contact BigClive, a youtuber who enjoys, specifically, doing teardowns on unsafe consumer product. Not sure if he'd have those references, but he understands his circuits. \$\endgroup\$ – K H Jan 7 at 0:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ any mains equipment which has a direct connection and no safety earth has to be (at least) doubles isolated. The reasoning is that no single failure can ever cas a shock. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appliance_classes -- flame retardent I'm guessing a bit but it is an educated guess. You may have to do a bit of your own research here as well. \$\endgroup\$ – dmb Jan 7 at 18:33

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