I m confused in the direction of current flow as I studied that current flow from + to - But current flow from negative to positive also called electron flow... & Also current which flow from positive to negative called conventional current... As I know that electron current is a flow of electron towards the positive.... But what is the flow of conventional current at the same time ??? Are protons are flowing ???? Plzzz explain what actually happens about current (- to +) or (+ to -)
If you're doing physics, then in a copper wire, the electrons move, very verrrry slowly, from negative to positive. But if it's an electrochemical cell, then positive ions and negative ions each move in opposite directions. In a semiconductor electrons, and weird quantum mechanical entities that are best described as holes, each also move in opposite directions. In ice, protons move, and in a plasma it tends to be electrons and positive ions. As you see, it's not just electrons that move to carry current.
If you're doing electronic engineering however, conventional current always flows positive to negative, whatever that flow is made from.
The convention for +current flow is from the side of surplus charges to the other.
The electron having more mass is the element of charge. Even though in physics it has an electron has -ve value, by convention we define the flow this way.
e=1.6021766208(98)×10−19 Coulombs, here is the unit of elementary charge.
The proton has a charge of +1e, which is comprise of three quarks (two "up" and one "down") having a charge of +2/3, +2/3, -1/3 adding up to a total of +1
The electron is a lepton (type of fundamental particle) with a charge of -1e.
Electron Flow is the correct model. Electrons flow from negative to positive, while the protons and neutrons remain fixed in place.
Initially, it was theorized that positive charges (protons) flowed from positive to negative. When this was later decided to be incorrect, this incorrect model was named "conventional current".