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I m confused in the direction of current flow as I studied that current flow from + to - But current flow from negative to positive also called electron flow... & Also current which flow from positive to negative called conventional current... As I know that electron current is a flow of electron towards the positive.... But what is the flow of conventional current at the same time ??? Are protons are flowing ???? Plzzz explain what actually happens about current (- to +) or (+ to -)

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    \$\begingroup\$ Also: Why is the charge naming convention wrong? \$\endgroup\$ – user103380 Jan 7 '19 at 19:20
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    \$\begingroup\$ Plzzz write "please". \$\endgroup\$ – Transistor Jan 7 '19 at 19:37
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    \$\begingroup\$ One question mark per question is sufficient too. \$\endgroup\$ – Eugene Sh. Jan 7 '19 at 20:29
  • \$\begingroup\$ The legendary American oligarch Benjamin Franklin, honored by picture on the $100 money bill, defined the direction of current flow to be from the (+) side of a Volta Pile to the (-) side. In the 1700s. \$\endgroup\$ – analogsystemsrf Jan 8 '19 at 3:49
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If you're doing physics, then in a copper wire, the electrons move, very verrrry slowly, from negative to positive. But if it's an electrochemical cell, then positive ions and negative ions each move in opposite directions. In a semiconductor electrons, and weird quantum mechanical entities that are best described as holes, each also move in opposite directions. In ice, protons move, and in a plasma it tends to be electrons and positive ions. As you see, it's not just electrons that move to carry current.

If you're doing electronic engineering however, conventional current always flows positive to negative, whatever that flow is made from.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ "In ice, protons move" Can you explain that statement because I'm pretty sure the H2O molecule is not giving up any protons. \$\endgroup\$ – Elliot Alderson Jan 7 '19 at 23:22
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ElliotAlderson Go to wikipedia for 'proton conductor', or google for that plus 'ice'. I can't be bothered to link to the many references that the search furnishes for your leisurely perusal. \$\endgroup\$ – Neil_UK Jan 8 '19 at 7:34
  • \$\begingroup\$ Well I'll be damned, protons can move in ice. Thanks for teaching me something new today. \$\endgroup\$ – Elliot Alderson Jan 8 '19 at 12:26
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The convention for +current flow is from the side of surplus charges to the other.

The electron having more mass is the element of charge. Even though in physics it has an electron has -ve value, by convention we define the flow this way.

e=1.6021766208(98)×10−19 Coulombs, here is the unit of elementary charge.

The proton has a charge of +1e, which is comprise of three quarks (two "up" and one "down") having a charge of +2/3, +2/3, -1/3 adding up to a total of +1

The electron is a lepton (type of fundamental particle) with a charge of -1e.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ The convention for current flow does not depend on "surplus charge". It also does not depend on voltage. Conventional current is simply the net effective flow of positive charge, period. If a charge passes through a surface then there is current flow through that surface. \$\endgroup\$ – Elliot Alderson Jan 7 '19 at 23:20
  • \$\begingroup\$ If you read what you wrote , there is no contradiction between the condition and the reaction. I.e. the dielectric between or the conduction around \$\endgroup\$ – Tony Stewart Sunnyskyguy EE75 Jan 7 '19 at 23:45
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Electron Flow is the correct model. Electrons flow from negative to positive, while the protons and neutrons remain fixed in place.

Initially, it was theorized that positive charges (protons) flowed from positive to negative. When this was later decided to be incorrect, this incorrect model was named "conventional current".

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    \$\begingroup\$ In circuit analysis, positive charge flowing in one direction is indistinguishable from negative charge flowing in the opposite direction. There is nothing "incorrect" about conventional current \$\endgroup\$ – user28910 Jan 7 '19 at 22:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ As @user28910 said, there is nothing incorrect about conventional current. Conventional current does not assume that protons or positive charge flow, it simply defines "current" as the net flow of positive charge. The notion of conventional current is valid regardless of what sort of mobile charge is causing the current. \$\endgroup\$ – Elliot Alderson Jan 7 '19 at 23:29
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Electrons in a wire move very slowly, but the current they pass along moves much quicker, up to the speed of light, and slower in a printed ciruit board, measured at more like 1/2 the speed of light.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Your answer doesn't make sense. Current is defined as the rate of flow of charge, so it's not possible for electrons to move slowly but current to move quickly. \$\endgroup\$ – Elliot Alderson Jan 7 '19 at 23:15
  • \$\begingroup\$ And yet that's how it works. See "Current versus drift speed" here physicsclassroom.com/class/circuits/Lesson-2/Electric-Current \$\endgroup\$ – CrossRoads Jan 7 '19 at 23:20
  • \$\begingroup\$ Quoting from the linked page: "current is the rate at which charge flows past a point on a circuit". Nothing more. Don't confuse a common example of current with the definition of current. \$\endgroup\$ – Elliot Alderson Jan 7 '19 at 23:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ Also from that page: "The electric field signal travels at nearly the speed of light". It's the electric field that moves quickly, not the current and not the charge. \$\endgroup\$ – Elliot Alderson Jan 7 '19 at 23:26

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