Almost all microcontrollers have / can support the features you list. So in my opinion you will not find what you need by looking at the features in your list.
A very important feature (for me) is how easy it is to use and develop using a microController. The Arduino IDE is easy to use (I think) and free. Also you will find loads of examples for that platform.
But then you're "stuck" with the uCs that are supported by that platform. So that's mostly the ATMega uCs. Is that an issue? For me it is not as I use uCs only for hobby projects. I simply buy an Arduino-NanoPro clone on ebay for less than $2 and use that.
If you need a uC for some gadget and it needs to be mass produced and as cheap as possible then there are uCs that cost only 3 cents each. But these need a special development platform and can only be programmed once.
But to learn about uCs for hobby projects: just use an Arduino. With the knowledge you gain from doing that you will be able to make better use of any uC you will be using in the future.