It really depends on the circuit. In good schematics the components are arranged in such a way that it exposes their intent. You can gather this information from the datasheet. For example, C3 is said to be a decoupling capacitor. The closer you put this capacitor to the battery, the better decoupling you will have, since the loop for RF to ground will be shorter, and therefore parasitic inductance of the PCB trace will also be lower, which in effect will increase your decoupling efficiency.
So it definitely does matter. The hard task (for me personally) is to recognize the reason why the component is on a board, and design the layout in a way that maximizes the usefulness of this component and its purpose.