Understanding STEVAL-ILM001V1 DALI transceiver schematic + adding protections

I'm working on implementing a DALI bus interface circuit.

DALI has a few specifics that make this tricky: The device should draw at most 2mA when receiving, it transmits by shorting the bus (250mA is limited by the supply). The normal voltage is 16-22V, BUT the bus must survive polarity reversal and also a short to 230VAC (this is for the case when a technicial installing it wires it wrong).

Here's the STEVAL-ILM001V1 schematic that I determined to be the closest to what I want - there are several simpler circuits online, usually with no 230V protection whatsoever.

I understand most of it, but there's a few details I need to understand before implementing it:

1. Why is the resistor R2-4 split to three 68k resistors. Is this just to achieve the right value more precisely, or does it have soemthing to do with power dissipation?
2. What is the function of those resistors anyway? I understand that the two transistors form a current limiter. What role do those resistors play here? The current is set by U(CE_Q1)/R5, if I understand it right
3. What is the function of C1? (maybe related to C2 - next point)
4. Ditto for C2 - is this to allow keeping the bus shorted for the required time to send a pulse? My understanding is that the current supply won't supply anything when the bus is shorted, and the Q2 gate would sink to GND via R6? So I guess it might oscillate or go into some non-standard state where e.g Q2 is in the resistive region and dissipates heat?
5. edit Also, what's the purpose of R1? A "fuse"?

Next, I plan to improve the 230VAC protection by adding a small-signal NMOS (e.g. BSS123) like this: - can this work? I want R11 to get some voltage on it when D4 conducts, taking the Q4 gate above the gate threshold and switching it on - so when my MCU tries to transmit, nothing happens.

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab

• Have you tried using a free simulation tool? – Andy aka Mar 29 '19 at 10:34
• @Andyaka I couldn't get circuitstudio simulation working. anyway if this gets answered it'll be helpful for others - there is very little useful info on DALI transceiver design online, and i've seen real products that got this wrong and just blow up on 230VAC short – MightyPork Mar 29 '19 at 10:34
• @mightypork - I am working on DALI circuits currently and would like to know if there are any updates on your project. Currently I am figuring out this 220 VAC part. – Whiskeyjack May 15 '19 at 12:48
• @Whiskeyjack we made a PCB and did some very basic tests, but other things took priority so I can't tell you if the 230V protection works. I only tested the communication part with optocouplers. Here's the relevant piece of my schematic, if it helps share.ondrovo.com/2019-05-16/Screenshot_20190516_154004.png – MightyPork May 16 '19 at 13:45
• @mightypork - thanks a lot. I will put up an update here if I find something useful regarding this. You can check this answer if you want. – Whiskeyjack May 16 '19 at 13:52