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For my degree work, i make some reseaches for different bus systems and i've found ethernet a bit different than others: The old 10Base5 and 10Base2 ethernet used only one pair of conductor to communicate the nodes with each other (coaxial cable) and implemented CSMA/CD to avoid/manage transamission collisions. Thats fine. However modern twisted pair ethernet equipments more likely connected as point to point devices with full-duplex capability, where there's no collision, but still implements CSMA/CD.

It is possible to create an ethernet bus line using only one twisted pair? Or this one conductor line connection is possible only for the old coaxial ethernet?

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Is it possible to create an ethernet bus line using only one twisted pair?

Absolutely Yes. It won't be a bus as 10basex is, but will be point to point as most Ethernet implementations are today.

Read up on IEEE Std 802.3bw-2015 100BASE-T1 –Automotive Environment
This is a 100Mbps link over a single twisted pair.

You can also get out to 1000Mbps using IEEE Std 802.3bp-2016 1000BASE-T1 –Automotive and Industrial. Good for router powered ethernet based sensors.

This might be a good place to start, and it provides pointer to the newer SPE standards allowing both signal and POE over a single twisted pair.

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