I realize that I would be running higher (a little more than double) current through the motor I'm just curious if it would damage my motor?
The motor is a 1 hp, 110V/60Hz driving a meat grinder.
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It is very unlikely to be satisfactory. The reason is that the motor, as an electrical load, is variable depending on speed and mechanical load conditions on the motor. You would have to adjust the rheostat faster than humanly possible to get this to work the way you probably want it to. Maybe it could work in some very limited conditions. Also, note that you will dissipate a lot of power in the rheostat. Depending on motor size, the rheostat may need a fan to prevent it from overheating, and it will also be energized at a hazardous voltage. Talk about double-trouble.