I have a 12V 200AH lead acid battery and I want my load be a power resistor and a bulb. Does the batter draw current based on the load resistance? so meaning the current that will be drawn in this case is 12/(load resistance) ? does a typical bulb require a specific voltage and current?
The battery (or any constant voltage power supply) will deliver a current that depends on the supply voltage and load resistance, as determined by Ohm's Law.
Incandescent light bulbs are designed to operate on a specific voltage, depending on their intended operation. A bulb intended for 12 volt operation (for use in a car) will be instantly destroyed if you try to operate it from 120 volts. a bulb designed for 120 volts (for use at home) will not produce any useful light when operated from 12 volts (it might get slightly warm).