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I'm using a pair of drone motors in order to power a small vehicle. I have a 56V lawnmower battery, to which I will connect the two 22V motors in series. I need to be able to control the speed of the motors while in flight, bringing them down to 0 RPM or up to around 4,000 RPM.

I'm going to use an electric speed controller to do this. Does my ESC need to be rated to the 'remainder' voltage after the two motors, 12V? Or does it need to be rated to the voltage of the battery, 56V? I'm having significant trouble finding a 56V ESC.

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Connecting in series is a bad idea. Your may lose control and crash. Also, one ESC cannot drive two brushless motors, either series or parallel (if they are brushless). Even with a 56V ESC, a 56V battery will still burn out a 48V motor, let alone what you want to do. Numerous problems with your approach. You need to go back to the drawing board. Also, the ESC needs to be rated for the max voltage in the circuit. the motor voltage rating is just a number. It's not a voltage that appears in the circuit. However, the battery voltage IS a voltage that will appear in the circuit though.

There is no "remainder" voltage. Your understanding of what the ESC does is deeply flawed. An ESC is not a resistor or linear regulator. It's a valve that passes or blocks ALL the voltage of the battery. No opening halfway so if it blocks, it must withstand the full voltage of the battery.

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