I have come across the following circuit where a BJT works as switch when I apply 23 volts to base using a 100k resistor.
A 3.2 mA constant current source is connected to the collector of the BJT and that current flows when the base current is present. From the practical observations, the BJT seems to be in saturation mode (Vce_SAT=0.1V.)
How can I mathematically prove that the transistor is in saturation modr? How can I relate that VCE<0.7 Volts mathematically?