# First-order hold interpolation in matlab

I have a sinusoidal signal x(t) sampled with period 1/fs. The result is the discrete signal x[n], where x[n]=x(t)|t=nT. Then I perform an upsampling of factor, let's say, 8 to increase the sampling frequency by a factor of 8. Here's the code in matlab syntax:

f=10e6; % signal's frequency
fs=1e9; % sampling frequency
t=0:1/fs:20/f1-1/fs; % time vector
x=sin(2*pi*f*t); % sinusoidal signal

% upsampling by a factor of 8
x1=upsample(x,8);
% filtering
filt=[1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,1]/2; %triangular impulse response
foh=conv(x1,filt,'same');

%scale time axis
nt=0:1/(8*fs):20/f-1/(8*fs); % scaled time vector

%plot reconstructed signal
plot(nt,foh)


Now after running the above code I get the following plot as the output of the reconstructed signal, which doesn't appear to be a sinusoidal anymore, This more looks like a predictive first-order hold than a basic one. There seems to be something wrong with my filtering scheme but don't know how to fix that to get a basic FOH response.

Thanks..

Your filt is simply not a first-order hold filter.

Fix that by writing down what each sample in your 7 inter-original-sample samples need to have as value. You'll come up with a description like:

The first inserted sample needs to be the sum of the last sample, and the 1/8 of the difference to the next input sample.

That is a simple linear equation:

\begin{align} y[n=m+1] &= x[m] + (x[m+8]-x[m])\cdot\frac 18\\ &= x[n-1] + \frac18 x[n+7] + (-\frac18)x[n-1]\\ &= \frac{8-1}8 x[n-1] + \frac18 x[n+7] \end{align}

notice where the the $1$ from the index on the left side reappears on the right side.

Do the same for the second, third, … seventh sample that you insert.

You'll notice that the vector you get bears no resemblance to your filt coefficients!

• I actually want to correct the filter filt and do the convolution with x[n] to reconstruct the signal. What you'e suggesting is ok but not like what I asked – dirac16 May 19 at 19:52
• Please try to do what I recommend in my answer: compare your convolution with the vector filt with the coefficients you get by doing above considerations for the interpolated values. My answer addresses exactly what you address in your comment! – Marcus Müller May 19 at 20:01
• I have to insert 7 zeros after each sample. There are say N samples. So should I write down y[n] for 7N samples? The other thing I don't get from your answer is as to how the data vector y[n] would lead to the coefficients of filt. Also what does index m indicate? Sorry I'm new to signal processing.. Still have got a lot to learn – dirac16 May 19 at 20:34
• yes, write down that y for the seven interpolated samples :) Then, write down what the convolution with filt means, i.e. imagine your filter would consists of a coefficient series h[n], and simply write down what, for example, y[n] would look like for n=m+4 (with that I meant "the fourth inserted sample"). – Marcus Müller May 20 at 5:15