As MCG already mentions, you can use in principle any sensor that also can be used by Arduino. The main issue is if you want to use libraries. For the Arduino, there are for almost any sensor a library available, for the STM32 this is much less the case. Writing a library can take quite some time (depending on the complexity of the sensor communication).
The Nucleo board can help if the sensor is placed on a board that can be pushed on top of an Arduino; otherwise you need to use separate wires anyway.
Another way that could be worthwhile checking, is STM32Arduino, which is a project to make some STM32's compatible with Arduino, and can be programmed like an Arduino, but not all libraries are compatible.
See also MCG's comment below and check the following helpful starting point for STM32Duino: getting-started-with-stm32-development-board-stm32f103c8.
In most cases, Arduino is the most easiest solution, mostly because of the existence of a large library support, however, the Arduino also has some big advantages: very less SRAM, mostly bigger in size than STM32 boards, no (easy) debugging, very less peripherals.
Another problem with Arduino libraries (and probably STM32 libraries too), is to check if multiple (different) libraries work together; you get into problems when e.g. they use both the same timer.