In my recent study of electronics, I chance upon a guide on building a line-following robot. In one of the diagram shown, I realized that the capacitors, namely, C1, C2, C4 and C5, all marked with red arrows, are connected with the wrong polarity. This is from my recent understanding of capacitors. I have listed my observations and reasoning below.
Kindly help verifies if my understanding is correct. I have tried contacting the author but to no avail ;(
The symbol indicates electrolytic capacitors in use, which are polarised capacitor. The flat side of the symbol should be the positive terminal. However, the curve side(-ve) is connected to the power source(+ve) instead.
C3(marked with green arrow) is connected correctly, at least IMO(beginner).
I think this is important as the reverse voltage in electrolytic capacitor will cause self-destruction of the oxide layer and fire.
Here is the link to the guide: http://www.circuitstoday.com/line-follower-robot-using-8051-microcontroller