You have inadequate power and there is no better solution than a 24V battery and a 15A ESC.
Motor speed with no load is proportional to voltage.
Torque is proportional to current which starts at Vm/DCR where your current will be ~ 10x rated load current due to this winding resistance , DCR (Ohms) .
If you can pulse at > 20kHz the motor (V-) with a transistor at 20% duty cycle from your 24V to motor V+, with a low-side switch rated for >10A and similar >10A power diode in reverse across across switch to gnd. Then you have a “Buck Regulated” step down voltage at 20% of input voltage with current boosted . This will give more torque but 20% of rated RPM. This may be the lowest starting speed above stall speed.
Adding a large cap (>470uF) to 24V with low ESR will boost the current if the supply does not have one.
Once the motor speeds up the inductance and back EMF reduces the AC current rectified by motor commutation to DC from source. Then you can adjust duty cycle with a pot using a Schmitt trigger Astable CMOS Logic clock by pulling the input high and suitable R ratios and C for frequency and then be able to regulate the voltage say from 0 to 30% duty cycle.
You seem to need a 5V supply just to get started not a 24V supply with only 24W on. 150W Motor. I need your target RPM, and load. I can only “guestimate”. But this motor is rated for 150W~300W power and 10x surge current with 24V.