In the PCB industry this is called component potting.
The white ring is there to ensure the pouring of the resin can reach the required height and not spill on the nearby components.
What component is under there is tricky to know but you can make educated guess:
- it is not for weather proofing (the rest of the board would be coated too)
- it is a component that is high enough to require a pouring "ring"
- it is the only one with this resin contraption
- it doesn't have a lot of pins
- the resin is not translucent thus it is not an optoelectronic component
- it is not some kind of IC or flip chip protection (too many pins according to your observation and it wouldn't need the "ring")
- it might be some kind of fragile inductor (sealed for protection of its winding)
- it might be a trimming potentiometer (potted as a mean of sealing its calibration)
For me looking at the size of this I would tend to say it is a trimming potentiometer that was sealed after calibration, the white ring being there to ensure the resin was poured high enough. The resin making the calibration more permanent than anything else (that is maybe why they have gone with this instead of a dab of glue).
This might be entirely wrong, I am not the one who designed this.
From the extanded details of the later answers and comments ! It is clear that I was wrong... I think we can now confortably assume that the potting was done as a sound insulating feature to reduce audible noise from the SMPS (that was the ahah factor I think).
In rare cases it may be necessary to varnish/encase the entire powersupply in potting material to reduce audible noise.There are many companies that make these electronics insulation resins and polymers for these applications such as Elantas Electrical Insulation,EpicResins and ITW Engineered Polymers.
(cited from http://www.ti.com/lit/an/slua821/slua821.pdf)
That was a very good question ! I definitely learned something new. And I wish more powersupply manufacturer would implement these.