This is an old linear power supply schematic. The 78GU1C is a four pin adjustable regulator. It adjusts its output to keep its sense pin, pin 1, at 5V. In this circuit, since there isn't a divider, in the feedback loop, it's going to adjust the base drive of the D44VM4 pass transistor to keep the output voltage at 5V. Fairly straight forward regulator driving a pass transistor. What I can't figure out is what R53, in parallel with the transistor is for.
Put together a simulation. The dotted box is a rough approximation of the 78GU1C. Though rough, and simplistic, it does actually behave properly when prototyped. The prototype had a CA3140EZ op amp which has a 40ma max output -- hence the extra transistor to drive the "internal" pass transistor.
In simulation the op amp will oscillate at when the current through Rl is below about 2A, depending on the opamp model being used. I'm also using "perfect" passives and generic transistors. I'm sure that with a more complex circuit, and proper models for everything, the oscillation could be tamed. I was more interested in how the circuit behaved with and without R53 present.