I've watched several programs which explain the fabrication of microchips essentially similar to developing film to the layperson. There is a silicon wafer, a special designed mask, and then light is used to "burn" the design into the silicon wafer in a multi-step process. One of the most modern ways to do this is called Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography.
Frankly, I understand the concept quite well. What I don't understand is how the burned-in result on the wafer includes a bunch of tiny electrical components which actually do something when potential differences are applied. If I search the Web for "transistor" images, I get a quite familiar electrical component with leads that could be plugged into a breadboard, for example.
My question is, what makes a "standard" transistor like one you may find in an electronics store in a bag, different from these etchings and how do we go from burning a pocket into a wafer to a functioning electronics component like a transistor? Additionally, what types of electrical differences may we see in a transistor used in a microchip vs a traditional, visible-to-the-eye transistor? If the answer to this question is too complicated to summarize here, some references would be appreciated.