# Trying to differentiate between two simple clock divider circuits - VHDL

I'm very new to VHDL and I'm trying to design a simple clock divider process, but I'm running into a strange disparity between two forms of a process that I can't tell apart logically. I'd really appreciate help with this! Sorry if I don't include enough context, I don't know yet what would be helpful for this sort of thing.

Form 1:

div_main : process(clk_in) is
variable count : integer := 0;
begin
if (rising_edge(clk_in) and sw_in(3) = '1') then
count := count + 1;
if (count > div) then
count := 0;
tmpclk <= not tmpclk;
end if;
end if;
end process div_main;


Form 2:

div_main : process(clk_in) is
variable count : integer := 0;
begin
if (rising_edge(clk_in) and sw_in(3) = '1') then
count := count + 1;
end if;
if (count > div) then
count := 0;
tmpclk <= not tmpclk;
end if;
end process div_main;


(The sw input is a form of clk enable) (The clk_in is a 125MHZ pin output on the FPGA)

The first form works perfectly, but I'm having a ton of issues with the second. It's tmpclk output is nearly random. The only difference I can see is whether the conditional reset of count is evaluated on only rising edges or on both rising and falling edges, which I wouldn't think matters. I would really appreciate if someone could explain why they behave so differently!

• Always use integers with range specified. It will optimise your code in case synthesiser is not smart enough. Oct 4, 2019 at 9:01

## 1 Answer

I'm not surprised that the second form gives you issues. Let's look at the code line-by-line.

First, we have the process declaration:

div_main : process(clk_in) is
variable count : integer := 0;
begin


This tells the synthesizer/simulator to "trigger" the process any time clk_in changes. It also declares a count variable used internally. Note that this may be problematic in a synthesized design due to the fact that integer is not derived from std_logic like the signed and unsigned types defined in ieee.numeric_std (basically std_logic_vector with extra operator overloads). I would recommend changing the declaration to something like this:

    variable count : unsigned(15 downto 0) := (others => '0'); -- Set the size to whatever you need


Next, we have a synchronous statement triggered on the rising edge of the clock, along with a condition. count is incremented on every rising edge as long as sw_in(3) is asserted.

    if (rising_edge(clk_in) and sw_in(3) = '1') then
count := count + 1;
end if;


The problem lies in your next statement, which is a condition that is evaluated on both clock edges (no rising_edge(clk_in) if in if statement). Since the two if statements are not mutually exclusive, it is possible that count will be assigned twice in the same clock cycle.

    if (count > div) then
count := 0;
tmpclk <= not tmpclk;
end if;
end process div_main;


If count were a signal, you might get more predictable behavior, but with a variable, it's difficult to say what will happen here. This article, which provides an excellent bit of insight into the difference between signals and variables.

The most important thing to understand (and the largest source of confusion) is that variables immediately take the value of their assignment, whereas signals depend on if the signal is used in combinational or sequential code.

To put it another way, a simulator may be able to assign the variable twice in the same process, but this would be extremely problematic to implement in hardware. You are essentially shorting two outputs together, which is certainly not what you want.

While the first form is better, you will still encounter a similar issue if you try to implement it in hardware. Here is an implementation that should work in hardware, though it may still be better to use a signal instead of a variable for your counter.

div_main : process(clk_in) is
variable count : unsigned(15 downto 0) := (others => '0');
begin
if rising_edge(clk_in) and sw_in(3) = '1') then
-- Note that count is only assigned once per rising edge of clk_in
if (count > div) then
count := (other => '0');
tmpclk <= not tmpclk;
else
count := count + 1;
end if;
end if;
end process div_main;

• Thanks, this definitely helped! As a followup, does the statement about assigned it twice in one clock cycle apply to any clk source? It is my understanding that the process statement is evaluated in full twice per cycle of clk_in (rising and falling edges) so I'm still a bit unsure how it interferes, seeing as resetting count to 0 on the rising edge makes the condition false. Oct 4, 2019 at 5:36
• @EvanBattaglia You have to remember that VHDL (unlike a programming language) is not inherently sequential. The nested if-else statement implements a multiplexer that would then be connected to count register. The fact that count is a register (as opposed to a latch or combinatorial output) depends entirely on the surrounding code, which in this case causes it to only be updated on a rising edge of clk_in. Oct 4, 2019 at 6:36
• -1 Warning against a use of integers would have been valid 20 years ago, these days it's just a sign that you no longer kept up with contemporary designs. Integers simulate faster, read more naturally and synthesize perfectly fine. Oct 4, 2019 at 6:44
• @Evan your code will infer a combinational logic for second if block which has inputs -- clock, count and div and output tmp. In fact its a combinatorial loop cz output tmp depends on itself in a loop (not gate). Its like an inverters output is tied to its input. Synthesiser will throw warnings errors for it. Write all synchronous logic inside the clock edge. Interesting thing is that you also have something called synthesis simulation mismatch here. What you simulate is not what synthesiser will actually give you cz of senstivity list being incomplete Oct 4, 2019 at 8:46
• No Books cover everything. We all learnt with trial and error just like you.. And got some experience.. . Code simulate n synthesis whenever you wonder - what happens if i do like this.. Oct 4, 2019 at 15:20