I'm pretty new to wireless communication and Lora.
I've read in many places that with Lora in urban areas "you can expect up to 2- to 3-km-wide coverage, while in the rural areas it can reach beyond 5 to 7 km." (Here)
I've tried all sorts of different antennas and I've tried different bandwidths, spreading factors, and data rates. I've set the Tx power as high as it will go. I can't get anywhere near 2 to 3 km in a suburban environment let alone in an urban environment. My max ranges are a few hundred yards at best. I'm not using LoraWAN but just plain Lora between the 2 devices.
How can I increase that range? Do I need to buy different hardware? What do I need to do to get that 2-3 km urban range?
If there's something else that can clarify this question please let me know.
From my understanding I will get the greatest range with the lowest possible bandwidth and highest possible spread factor. I used 12 as the spread factor and a bandwidth of 62500. My power supply was USB.