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I'm pretty new to wireless communication and Lora.

I've read in many places that with Lora in urban areas "you can expect up to 2- to 3-km-wide coverage, while in the rural areas it can reach beyond 5 to 7 km." (Here)

I am using 2 Adafruit Feather 32u4 Loras with the RadioHead library from Airspayce.

I've tried all sorts of different antennas and I've tried different bandwidths, spreading factors, and data rates. I've set the Tx power as high as it will go. I can't get anywhere near 2 to 3 km in a suburban environment let alone in an urban environment. My max ranges are a few hundred yards at best. I'm not using LoraWAN but just plain Lora between the 2 devices.

How can I increase that range? Do I need to buy different hardware? What do I need to do to get that 2-3 km urban range?

If there's something else that can clarify this question please let me know.

EDIT:

From my understanding I will get the greatest range with the lowest possible bandwidth and highest possible spread factor. I used 12 as the spread factor and a bandwidth of 62500. My power supply was USB.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Well, assuming the antenna is already as good as it'll get, you either need different suburbs, or a higher elevated place for your device. Chances are that within legal limits, you simply won't get farther. \$\endgroup\$ – Marcus Müller Oct 5 '19 at 19:25
  • \$\begingroup\$ Since nothing of relevance differs between LoRa and zigbee w.r.t. to this problem: \$\endgroup\$ – Marcus Müller Oct 5 '19 at 19:26
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    \$\begingroup\$ Possible duplicate of How to increase range of zigbee? \$\endgroup\$ – Marcus Müller Oct 5 '19 at 19:26
  • \$\begingroup\$ What spreading factor are you using? What is your power supply? Try running from battery (not a USB portable one, actual battery with a linear regulator) to be sure you are not introducing noise. \$\endgroup\$ – Chris Stratton Oct 5 '19 at 19:47
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    \$\begingroup\$ @MarcusMüller your claim is quite mistaken, there is actually quite a lot different in that a user of LoRa has many things they can tune about the modulation and redundant coding. \$\endgroup\$ – Chris Stratton Oct 5 '19 at 19:49

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