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I started tinkering with speakers (mostly amplifier circuits) and I learned a lot about how sound and amplifying works but I don't understand how to increase quality

I have several kind of speakers , 0.5W , 1W , 5W but some speaker's quality better than others , I don't understand why ?

Their rated power is same , resistance same , size is same but sound quality different why ? (Both of them almost never used before and no visible damage )

I know my question seems like off topic but I want to know what's determining quality (factors or reasons)

Like quality depending on amplifier or speaker (maybe both ?) And what makes two same sized & power speaker better than each other ?

Edit : I want to make myself clear , When I say "quality" I don't mean noise or spikes . I mean audio sounds better (like it's more similar to real life voice)

For example : My cousin bought sennheisher headphones (I'm not advertising brand ) and when they stop working he gave them to me and I noticed internal speakers are almost same as mine but somehow mine sounds worse , why ?

Also I'm sorry if my question so hard to read because of grammar errors

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    \$\begingroup\$ the answer lies in the details : for examples, the material stiffness and acoustic back-pressure of the enclosure to produce air pressure to match to current in the coil yet compliant with elastic ring , and magnetic force variations with displacement that induces distortion. There are probably a dozen more critical physical parameters, that you cannot meaure easily. Such as TIMD but you can measure resonance and frequency response and HD with a microphone and Audacity.exe (free) Senn's open air reduces Q and boomy distortion \$\endgroup\$ – Tony Stewart Sunnyskyguy EE75 Oct 6 at 15:57
  • \$\begingroup\$ I'm sorry but I can't understand your comment , my English not that good but I will look at it later for translate all the technical terms . But can you explain it more simple ways ? Some words you mentioned seemed familiar (like audacity software) but I can't make connection how it answers my question (I don't mean to accuse you in any way) \$\endgroup\$ – Mordecai Oct 6 at 16:29
  • \$\begingroup\$ You attach a bare speaker to an amplifier and listen? No box mounting? Not a fair way to compare. The box enclosure improves "quality" very much, especially low frequency. \$\endgroup\$ – glen_geek Oct 6 at 16:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ This is a very broad question. Perhaps a book such as Martin Collloms amazon.co.uk/High-Performance-Loudspeakers-Martin-Colloms/dp/… would be a good start \$\endgroup\$ – Brian Drummond Oct 6 at 17:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ All speakers tested in same conditions and same frequency (5khz) Box enclosure provides unfair advantage , I wanted to test quality of raw output . \$\endgroup\$ – Mordecai Oct 6 at 19:36
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A loudspeaker is a transducer which converts analogue electrical signals into sound. To do this faithfully over the range of human hearing, 20 Hz to 20 kHz - a 1:1000 frequency range - is a technical challenge.

enter image description here

Figure 1. Cutaway view of a dynamic loudspeaker for the bass register. (1) Magnet. (2) Voicecoil. (3) Suspension. (4) Diaphragm. Image source: Wikipedia's Loudspeaker.

Factors which affect the sound include:

  • The cone material, its stiffness an surface.
  • The suspension and how much this constrains the cone movement.
  • The magnet and coil and whether the coil remains fully in the slot of the magnet during excursion.
  • The mechanical resonance.
  • The cabinet or lack of.
  • The speaker diameter. Large is good for bass but may be poor for treble.

Any non-linearity in the performance of the speaker will result in audible distortion or "infidelity" to the original signal. (High-fidelity, hi-fi, means that the reproduced sound remains faithful to the original.)

In short, the difference you are hearing will be due to the specifications of the device, the design, materials used and care in manufacture.


From the comments:

Okay , so it's a basically like this : difference between output frequency and input frequency determine quality of speaker.

No. A loudspeaker will not change the frequency. It will follow the incoming driving frequency. What will happen is that if there is distortion then harmonic frequencies will be added to the audio. So, if reproducing a 1 kHz tone you might get slight traces of 2, 3, 4 kHz, etc added to the audio. Guitarists do this deliberately to generate a richer tone by over-driving the loudspeakers.

I'm assuming speaker's deviation varieties input frequency.

If you mean deviation from flat frequency response, then yes.

Some speakers better with low frequency others better with high frequency.Also with this logic can I say , generally large speakers good for low frequency and small speakers good for high frequency?

Yes. Large for bass ("whoofer") and small for treble ("tweeter"). The smaller speaker has less mass and therefore can be made to move more easily.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for answer , I thought speaker's materials will effecting the quality but Your answer made it more clear . But I noticed in your answer you said speaker diameter size resulting different frequency range quality so Can I identify quality like this : if speaker's frequency tolerance is low , audio quality will be better ? \$\endgroup\$ – Mordecai Oct 6 at 16:21
  • \$\begingroup\$ "Tolerance" isn't the right word. That means the deviation from the specification. e.g. +/- 5%. "Specification" is the word you're looking for. Find a datasheet for a loudspeaker and look at the frequency response (and all the other specifications). Then have a look at some articles on loudspeaker cabinet design to see how they extend the base response. \$\endgroup\$ – Transistor Oct 6 at 17:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ Okay , so it's a basically like this : difference between output frequency and input frequency determine quality of speaker . I'm assuming speaker's deviation varieties input frequency . Some speaker's better with low frequency others better with high frequency .Also with this logic can I say , generally large speakers good for low frequency and small speakers good for high frequency ? \$\endgroup\$ – Mordecai Oct 6 at 19:29
  • \$\begingroup\$ See the update. \$\endgroup\$ – Transistor Oct 6 at 20:42

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