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For long time I have been looking for a source for this but I dont know how to articulate it. Sometimes I need to send analog signal or DC voltage for hundreds of meters by using STP cables. But the projects sometimes outdoors where it is on the top of a bridge where lightings or other phenomena might cause interference on the transmission lines.

I juts need to know if there is any way I can investigate what in industry or in practice used as method as protection for possible high transients.

So below is an example where a 12VDC supply voltage is sent to a far end electronics which has no protection and can be a electrolytic capacitor followed by a voltage regulator:

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I marked the nodes as A B C and D. How could the type of the component be figured and the location considering the above scenario? For instance would placing TVS diodes across A B and C D be a way to protect both sides frrom possible high voltage spikes?

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All protection circuits need a voltage-divider action, thus both a series impedance and a shunt impedance. The TVS diodes are the shunt.

Often the only series impedance is the WIRE INDUCTANCE.

You can improve the protection by adding series impedance: resistors and/or inductance.

Here is how I've suppressed serious trash: 2 series inductors and 1 parallel capacitor, used 3 times

schematic

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab

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