In every circuit, also in this circuit, the current as a function of time takes such shape that every part obeys its operating law and circuit wide Kirchoff's laws are also fulfilled. No other current form is possible.
The resistor obeys Ohm's law I=U/R where U is the voltage between the ends of the resistor.
U=generator's voltage minus inductor's voltage. That's true in every moment, the law is known as Kirchoff's voltage law.
You cannot assume arbitary voltage over the inductor. Inductor generates voltage = L * the changing rate (amperes per second) of the current. Otherwise it wouldn't be an inductor. You must find which time dependency of the current fulfills every said law. That's how the circuit works.
You didn't try to find which current vs. time fits this circuit, but made instead some fuzzy assumptions and decided "the circuit seems to violate circuit laws". As well I could say "the current=zero, so this circuit doesn't obey the laws, some of the laws are not valid just in this circuit". But serious members would vote me out quite soon.
Elementary differential equation theory tells that the only possible current in the drawn circuit is a 50Hz sinusoidal which has some phase lag behind the voltage of the generator. The lag in your numerical case is quite small, it's only 180 microdegrees, which probably means nothing practically substantial in 50Hz electric power systems.
Practical electricians like me mostly do not calculate with differential equations. Mathematicians have developed for us a shorter but still exact calculation method named phasor calculus. It can be used only with sinusoidal currents and voltages which have the same frequency.
BTW. Your question "does the phase shift happen in the whole circuit, or only after/before the inductor?" reveals there's much fog in how you understand such things as voltage, current and being connected in series. Make those things clear at first.