For example, I have an air conditioner. How to know if such a device has a variable load or not ?
NOTE: Air conditioner is just an example. My question is in general how to know ?
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How to know if the load is variable one?
Think about how the device works. Does it have a heating element? Does it have motors? Does it have controls that would change its operating setpoints?
One way to know if an appliance is a variable load on the electrical system is to monitor the current or power used or drawn from the source by the load. Another way is to observe the operation and see, hear or feel how it behaving.
Most loads vary by either turning on and off during use or through a manual or automatic change in motor speed or heat production during use.