How can I protect the through holes copper which is electroplated from being etched away by the ferric chloride? Is there a resistive solution or it`s just the conductive ink.

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    \$\begingroup\$ @user253751 In industrial PCB production, there's a plating step after drilling but before etching. That's when the insides of vias are plated. During etching, the vias are protected by photoresist. \$\endgroup\$ – Nick Alexeev Jan 24 at 18:44
  • \$\begingroup\$ @NickAlexeev i use toner transfer method not photoresist \$\endgroup\$ – Ahmed Emad Jan 24 at 19:28

The same photoresist that keep the copper from being etched away should generally keep the hole plating from being etched away. If not, they can be painted explicitly.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I use toner transfer not photoresist , and how to expose these tiny holes to ultraviolet light? \$\endgroup\$ – Ahmed Emad Jan 24 at 19:30
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    \$\begingroup\$ if they use a positive photoresist they don't need to expose the holes. you could use wax, or a wax-based paint to protect the vias. \$\endgroup\$ – Jasen Jan 24 at 20:03
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    \$\begingroup\$ @AhmedEmad then toner is taking the place of photoresist in your process \$\endgroup\$ – user253751 Jan 25 at 22:33

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