Source is a home 120/240VAC with pole transformer. I want to direct bury a 500 foot 120V line to run some battery chargers and dont need more than 10 amps. Why cant I only run a single large conductor [4 awg gives a 3% drop] and pick up neutral and earth ground at the load end [where I already have a 8 ft ground rod for a generator that feeds an RV] This would save me $$ on running a 2 or 3 conductor 4 awg, as they are harder to find. I am an Electrical Engineer, so dont need any basic help, just need help understanding the down sides to creating my own ground/return path reference 500 feet away from the source breaker panel/ transformer pole.
\$\begingroup\$ An inspector would tare you to shreds for not following the electric code in your area. Also, the earth return would not give you such a nice drop as the main feed. \$\endgroup\$– vini_iFeb 17, 2020 at 20:52
4\$\begingroup\$ As an electrical engineer, what would you estimate the resistance is of the 'ground path' between your ground rod and whatever grounding you hope the transformer has back at the pole? \$\endgroup\$– brhansFeb 17, 2020 at 20:54
2\$\begingroup\$ if you want to save copper get a 240V battery charger. \$\endgroup\$– Jasen Слава УкраїніFeb 17, 2020 at 20:56
1\$\begingroup\$ Thanks I think you answered it, forest loam is 10 to 150 ohm*meters, so that would be 10 x 150 = 1500 ohms, so I cant get much current thru that for sure ! \$\endgroup\$– JoeATLFeb 17, 2020 at 21:07
\$\begingroup\$ You could get two half-the-area copper wires for live and return and still be much wiser than trying to return via the actual earth. \$\endgroup\$– Marcus MüllerFeb 17, 2020 at 21:20
Follow the National Electrical Codes - use NMC or IMC rated for burial with a live, neutral, and ground and wire it accordingly.
Bury the NMC cable at least 18" and the IMC at least 6" and put protection above it before closing the trench - a treated lumber 1x4 works well.
Codes exist to insure the safe use of electricity and should not be ignored for the sake of saving money on cabling.
Even if your area does not require adherence to codes (which is completely idiotic) you should still follow them.
Example - "Gee, Mr. Inspector, I didn't know that the reason you are required to plug any unused cable openings in boxes is to prevent a fire from getting out of the box. So, that's why my house burnt down?"
This sort of thing happens, for want of a 25 cent plug, a house is lost.
Follow the codes.