As a preface, this is purely hypothetical. I know better than to use a transformer without knowing anything about it. I'm just trying to get an idea of whether this is possible, not whether it's a good idea.
Let's say I have a three-phase transformer that I know nothing about. I have three primary leads and three secondary leads, and that's it. No markings or anything, no datasheet, just a box with wires sticking out of it.
Is there any way to determine with external measurements how the windings are wired? I know that I can look at phase shift between primary and secondary to determine whether it's Y-Δ, but if there is no phase shift, is it possible to distinguish Y-Y from Δ-Δ? If there is phase shift, is it possible to determine which winding is Y and which is Δ?
Ideally I'd like answers that only involve measurements and physical properties. I'm aware there are conventions like using Δ on the high side of a Y-Δ transformer, but assume this transformer was wired by someone completely ignorant of any and all conventions and common sense. That means that either side could be Y or Δ without regard to relative voltages, and the neutral wire on a Y connection may not be present. You can assume the transformer is balanced, however, with three identical primary windings and three identical secondary windings.