I suggest you to look into Intel Stratix 10 FPGA datasheet to estimate FPGA configuration times with specific configuration schemes (ASx4 or AVSTx8 x16 x32) for ~50% or 100 % logic utilization, you will realize that large FPGAs now take way more than 100 mS to configure. So the 100 mS requirement is not enough to finish configuration. In fact the configuration bitstream in Stratix10 is compressed and is decompressed inside the FPGA chip using a SDM block - Secure Device Manager. The bitstream size also depends upon logic utilization. The more the logic utilization, the larger the bitstream, the longer it takes to configure. This compression is done to reduce configuration times. From Stratix10 onwards, Intel uses a processor to manage configuration and ton of other features it is called an SDM.
Regarding using PCIe in FPGA - I think you are referring to the capability of configuring FPGA via PCIe. If that is not the case, you are simply referring to PCIe spec when used in conjunction with an FPGA.
If you are referring to configuring FPGA via PCIe, then check below extract from CvP User Guide for more details about the topic.
Stratix 10 configuration via Protocol (CvP) User Guide
Stratix 10 configuration User Guide
CvP uses an external PCIe* host device as a Root Port to configure the Intel Stratix 10 device over the PCIe link. You can
specify up to a x16 PCIe link. Typically, the bitstream compression ratio and the SDM input buffer data rate, not the PCIe link
width, limit the configuration data rate. Intel Stratix 10 devices support two CvP modes, CvP initialization and CvP update.
CvP initialization process includes the following two steps:
- CvP configures the FPGA periphery image which includes I/O and hard IP blocks, including the PCIe IP. CvP uses quad SPI
memory in AS x4 mode to configure the FPGA fabric. Because the PCIe IP is in the periphery image, PCIe link training
establishes the PCIe link of the CvP PCIe IP before the core fabric configures.
- The host device uses the CvP PCIe link to configure your design in the core fabric.
CvP update mode updates the FPGA core image using the PCIe link already established from a previous full chip configuration
or CvP initialization configuration. After the Intel Stratix 10 enters user mode, you can use the CvP update mode to
reconfigure the FPGA fabric. This mode has the following advantages:
• Allows to change core algorithms logic blocks.
• Provides a mechanism for standard updates as a part of a release process.
• Customizes core processing for different components that are part of a complex system.
For both CvP initialization and CvP update modes, the maximum data rate depends on the PCIe generation and number of
For Intel Stratix 10 SoC devices, CvP is only supported in FPGA configuration first mode.
For more information refer to the Intel Stratix 10 Configuration via Protocol (CvP) Implementation User Guide.