I'm trying to understand op-amp operation, starting with the buffer circuit. I have simulated the voltage follower using an LM324 in Multisim Live. I was trying to simulate output saturation by changing the magnitude of the input voltage to the buffer to drive the op-amp beyond the power supply limits. The image included at the end of the post is my Multisim Live schematic and simulation results.
2 issues confuse me:
How do I determine the min/max output voltages from the datasheet? The info given is for single supply operation, however the op-amp is described as dual supply up to +-16V. Not sure how to convert the VOH and VOL specs from single supply to dual supply. The VOH spec is also state for V+ =30V, so not sure how to convert to +5V.
The simulation results show the op-amp in both positive and negative saturation. However the negative saturation is below VEE for the simulation. Regardless of how close the output can get to the rails, my simulation shows it clipping below the negative rail. I can't make heads or tails of this.