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Consider the following ideas I had which should help experts here to help or better answer my question:

Electric Generator idea:

In short, imagine the following: A sealed glass donut shaped container which has two mixed fluids of different boiling points, one being high and other one very low, and also has pyrolytic graphite suspended in the mixture of fluids, with a copper coil wound around the sides of the donut perpendicular to the position of a magnet in the center of the donut with respect to its polarity. The low boiling point of one of the fluids due to temperature change causes the whole mixture to turn around inside. The circular shape of the walls of the donut shaped container promotes the circular motion. The space between the magnet which is inside the donut shaped container hole, and the outside of the magnet where the coil is wound around, contains the mixture of the fluids which is moving around and the diamagnetic pieces of pyrolytic graphite are making the field intermittent. This should enable the production of electricity in the coil. The fluid would be black so to collect the heat and the pyrolytic graphite is also an excellent heat conductor which is a bonus to improve efficiency. As the fluids separate and one turns to vapor then condenses back into the mix the pyrolytic graphite causes disturbances in the magnetic field by blocking it which the coil takes as changes of magnetism and can be collected as energy.

Moar explained:

A donut-shaped container that is transparent and sealed that contains two fluids. There is a small air pocket in the container to allow for the vapor to expand and condense back into a fluid. The fluids are mixed together and a fine powder of pyrolytic graphite is added. The pyrolytic graphite is added to the mixture for it’s strong diamagnetic property.

Inside the hole of the donut-shaped container is a cylindrical shaped magnet. North Pole is on the top of the cylindrical shaped magnet and vice versa. The top of the magnet faces up if you were to be looking down at the donut from above.

A mixture of two fluids, one having a low boiling point and another having a much higher boiling point. The mixture is also black to absorb the maximum amount of heat. Let’s call these LBP liquid and HBP liquid as reference. Let’s also say that the LBP liquid turns to vapor at 95 degrees Fahrenheit and the HBP liquid turns to vapor at over 500 degrees Fahrenheit. The HBP liquid would have such a high boiling point that it wouldn’t turn to a vapor in the following setup. Let’s also say that the LBP and HBP liquids are both from similar origin and can mix together. The LBP is less viscous and the HBP would be very viscous. The coil is wound around the sides of the donut shaped container horizontally. The position relative to the magnet with respect to polarity as being the direction would be perpendicular.

The container would have to be constructed of materials strong and safe enough to contain the changes of pressure safely.

Variation #2 Instead of the diamagnetic material pyrolytic graphite being added, fine iron powder is added instead.

Variation #3 A mix of both pyrolytic graphite and iron powder is added to the fluid mixture.

xenon idea

Imagine a sealed ballast full of xenon which is a diamagnetic gas. Around the ballast is a coil of copper and nearby is a magnet. When the gas is slightly heated the atoms become more mobilized and move around. This causes fluctuations in the magnetic field which the coil collects and electricity is generated.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Really hard to follow what you're proposing here without engineering drawings. You're trying to convert heat flow into electrical energy (like a conventional steam turbine + alternator, or Peltier TEG), but using some complicated arrangement of exotic fluids and magnets... -- "The low boiling point of one of the fluids due to temperature change causes the whole mixture to turn around inside." I don't follow, why do you think the fluid would flow inside the torus in one direction but not the other? What produces this torque? -- Why isn't this a perpetual motion machine? \$\endgroup\$ – MarkU May 1 '20 at 4:17
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    \$\begingroup\$ What does 'Moar' mean? \$\endgroup\$ – Bruce Abbott May 1 '20 at 4:30
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Heating one side of the toroid would not cause the fluid to rotate as it would not have a preferred direction. The introduction of a cooling mechanism on the opposite side and valves in-between could help, but you will still lose a lot to turbulence in the fluids. There are ways to use the expansion of gasses to generate power but its hard to beat the efficiency of a good 'ol steam turbine.

Diamagnetism is very weak relative to magnetism, at least in any substance we know of. For this reason diamagnetic materials are often used on parts that you do not want to be affected by the magnets in a generator. Generators need very strong magnets to produce electricity. This interesting paper suggests the use of diamagnetic levitation in a generator.

A magnetic field does not produce current. A changing magnetic field creates a changing current. Moving a constant material through the coil would not change the flux going through the coil unless the amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, or even magnetic material you have in the fluid changes significantly with time. A suspension of these particles, although they may move through the coil, will not change the overall field through the coil. If you had a stationary magnet and coil, you would need some other way to alternate the field efficiently.

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