I think this is a Mylar tape, but why they come with it? I guess its so to make the Pick and Place machine job easier? And why is so common to find them holding cables inside some laptops? Just because they are fire resistant?
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Its kapton tape. It has two very interesting properties - its a great insulator, and its heat resistant - to the point where flexible circuit boards are made from it. You can solder without melting it (or even solder it), which makes it great for protecting parts from shorting when wave soldering.
Kapton is the tradename for polyimide tape