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We know that either in ideal or practical transformer in no-load condition, the exciting current has two components Ic(core loss component) and Im(magnetizing component). Now since the same current will flow through the winding, how can the two current be out of phase as we learned the current goes out phase when the current is divided into paths, and there is the same voltage between two distinct terminals. You can explain this in an equivalent circuit but in the actual circuit the current division is not possible as there is just single wire winding.magnetizing component and core loss component

Also, the same case is with the compensation current that appears in the full load condition. The two currents are out of phase in the same wire.phasor diagram of full load ideal transformer

How is this possible? Is it just a theoretical concept just to make it easy for understanding, or am I missing something here?

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  • \$\begingroup\$ The sum of sinusoids at the same frequency is a sinusoid at that same frequency - trigonometry. \$\endgroup\$
    – Chu
    May 25 '20 at 11:52
  • \$\begingroup\$ Waves are not solid objects and neither is current. \$\endgroup\$
    – DKNguyen
    May 26 '20 at 13:42
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currents Ic and Im are components we derived for our mathematical calculations purpose,resultant of those both currents will flow through the winding.and for clear understanding read about vectors.

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Consider this: -

enter image description here(http://stades.co.uk/index.html#transformers)

The two currents that flow through Rc and Lm are 90 degrees apart because one is a resistive loss (Rc) and one is the magnetization inductance Lm. The sum of those two currents does of course flow into the transformer primary terminals.

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How is this possible? Is it just a theoretical concept just to make it easy for understanding, or am I missing something here?

You could say that it is a theoretical or mathematical concept. In a circuit, you have the summing of two AC currents into one current where two branches of the circuit join together. Mathematically, the summation is a vector sum rather than a mathematical one. However we can also mathematically break apart a single current that has a phase shift with respect to voltage. We can say that the current has two parts that are mathematically summed together even though it is flowing in a single wire.

The same thing is done when a periodic waveform is not sinusoidal. Mathematically we say that the waveform consists of an infinite number of sine waves summed together. That is Fourier analysis.

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