# Power recirculation rig using rectifiers and BLDC motors

I am currently trying to set up a rig to test my 3d printed gears under different torques and motor speeds. The power input side is going to be the BLDC motor, driven by a hobby ESC (BLHeli_32), powered by a generic AC to 12V PSU. On the braking side of the gears I am reluctant to wiring up a 3 PWM-controlled resistors across the "braking motor" as it would be very wasteful of energy and produce heat, as I intended to run the motor at around 100W for many hours or days.

I am instead considering using a full wave three-phase bridge rectifier and connect the DC outputs back into the DC-in circuit (still with PWM MOSFETs to control torque). What starts confusing me is that, under the assumption of ideal, identical, lossless motors, the output voltage would be sqrt(3)*V_in (minus diode losses). Something feels confusing about it as the voltage would exceed supply voltage, and I can't figure how the system would reach equilibrium. Is this system possible? Would I need to use significantly lower kV motor on the output side? Would I need to put a diode or flyback diode to protect the PSU against backflow of electricity when the input motor throttles down?

I've schemed loosely what I think purely-electrically this circuit should look (bar the PWM on output), but may have made mistakes as I have very little electronics knowledge (aerospace engineer).

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab

• This is a total mess, sorry I do not understand nothing about your intentions, but this diagram is 100% not going to work. May 28, 2020 at 10:10
• Added hand-drawn schematic, sorry. I understand the confusion, but perceived two linked motors with different kV as effectively a transformer per phase May 28, 2020 at 10:32

1st note: The BL_Heli ESC won't last for long, since it is meant for RC planes, cars, etc.. they don't work at nominal power all the time, aka S1 duty.

2nd note: with this circuit you won't be able to control the torque. Only when generator voltage will become higher than battery voltage, the generator will produce a negative torque.

As said, this would reach the equilibrium when generator would produce higher voltage than supply voltage, and in a very short window it will freely run and in a very small rpm increase it will prevent further speed increase. Of course the two motors may not have the same characteristics to achieve this.

• Thanks. I will use a reasonably overspec'ed ESC (50A) ESC for the purpose to avoid overheating. I didn't draw in the PWM circuit to simplify the question, but with PWM + a much lower kV generator motor would I not gain torque control? May 28, 2020 at 14:35

The system described is called a "four square test rig" or "four square dynamometer." It is a scheme that has been around for a long time and may be known by other names. It can be implemented mechanically with a continuously variable transmission or with a regenerative dynamometer.

As pointed out by @Marko Buršič, with no adjustment provided on the power return bridge, operation is limited to a limited range of speed and load. For a wider range of adjustment, the power return bridge needs to be a regenerative PWM motor control rather than a simple rectifier. You will be able to find demonstrations of systems like this on YouTube.

• I didn't know the name (thank you, will do research on it now) but was aware of the mechanical dyno, but was keen to use an electrical recirculation over a torsional one as it provides easy transient torque control and could potentially scale to the whole rear end of my RC 3d printed differential, with a generator per rear wheel May 28, 2020 at 14:41