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I am working on a project, which is to make a PID based line follower but the constraints are:

  1. 5 IR sensors are allowed
  2. Only 9V battery
  3. No microcontroller, only discrete components

I though of input block, which takes input from IR sensor and converts it to analog signal, which is then fed into a PID controller.

For DAC I am using a R-2R ladder DAC.

Can anyone please suggest an alternative to using relays as used here.

My control signal will have 5V.

enter image description here enter image description here

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  • \$\begingroup\$ electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/312705/dac-r-2r-design \$\endgroup\$ – BeB00 Jun 4 '20 at 7:07
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thank you.Can you suggest the Ic no as I was not able to find any for P depletion type MOSFET . \$\endgroup\$ – Newton Nadar Jun 4 '20 at 7:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ generally you wouldn't make a discrete r2r ladder, you would buy a dac. Why do you want to make one? \$\endgroup\$ – BeB00 Jun 4 '20 at 7:41
  • \$\begingroup\$ Tips: (1) Turn off the background grid before taking the screengrab. It improves legibility. (2) Crop the image to the relevant section. 75% of your screengrab is irrelevant and requires your reader to load the image separately and pan and zoom. \$\endgroup\$ – Transistor Jun 4 '20 at 7:45
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    \$\begingroup\$ @PauComaRamirez Watch out for the ones that say "modified xx mins ago Community♦" - you probably don't want to bother with them. \$\endgroup\$ – Andrew Morton Jan 28 at 22:22

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